O Proper Stuff! — Macbeth, III, iv.
A. W. Crawford. Modern Language Notes. Vol. 30
These words seem, so far, to have baffled all the commentators. No real definition of either the separate words or of the phrase as a whole
has been offered, and the explanations given are but the purest guesses. The phrase is not,
perhaps, of vital importance to an understanding of the play, but correctly interpreted it
throws some light upon one of the most important aspects of the play, and helps to make clear
the relations of Lady Macbeth to her lord and to his crimes.
None of the comments that I can find shows any appreciation of the words of the phrase,
but all alike content themselves with an attempt to define the subjective mood of the
speaker. Clark and Wright, in the Clarendon Press edition of the play, give this explanation:
"Mere or absolute nonsense, rubbish. We have 'proper' used in a contemptuous exclamation
in Much Ado about Nothing, i, 3, 54, and iv, 1, 312. For 'stuff' see Measure for Measure,
iii, 2, 5, and I Henry IV, iii, I, 154." Furness gives only the Clarendon note, and Editor
II adds a quotation from Scott. Rolfe's note is obviously a restatement of the same conception: "Ironical and contemptuous. Proper (=fine, pretty, etc.) is often so used." These citations will suffice, for most other editors
simply follow the Clarendon note without comment of their own.
Nor do the Shakespearean lexicons take us
any nearer the true meaning. Schmidt's Lexicon gives two uses of "stuff," the second of
which is: "Especially things spoken or recited: Usually in contempt," and for which
our passage is cited as an instance. Cunliffe's
New Shakespearean Dictionary does not give
any definition of "stuff," and under the definition of "proper" does not cite this passage.
Neither the commentaries nor the dictionaries, then, have given us the true meaning.
The words are spoken by Lady Macbeth to
her lord just after their company have sat down
to the Banquet. Macbeth has declined to be
seated, for, as he says, "The table's full." He sees the ghost of Banquo in his place, but as
no one else seems to see it his words are not understood. The guests are about to rise because of Macbeth's strange actions and words, when Lady Macbeth urges them to keep their
seats, assuring them that "The fit is momentary." When chided for his behavior, Macbeth
excuses himself by referring to the sight as that "Which might appal the devil." Then Lady
Macbeth says to him
O proper stuff!
That is, she is telling him that what he now
sees is but the projection of his own inner fear,
and is but another vision of "the air-drawn
dagger," which came entirely from his own
mind, or as she puts it is his own (proper)
This is the very painting of your fear:
This is the air-drawn dagger which, you said,
Led you to Duncan.
The use of "stuff," in a subjective sense, for
the things of the mind or spirit, is common
enough in Shakespeare. It is used again in
this sense in the last act of the play where
Macbeth asks the Doctor if he cannot
Cleanse the stuff'd bosom of that perilous stuff
It is also used in a similar sense in several
other plays, of which the following are the
two most important:
Which weighs upon the heart? (V, iii, 44-5.)
My lord, there was no such stuff in my thoughts.
In two passages the word "stuff" is associated
with "dream," and has a somewhat similar
Hamlet, II, ii, 324.
Yet do I hold it very stuff o' the conscience
To do no contrived murder. Othello, I, ii, 2-3.
'Tis still a dream, or else such stuff as madmen
There need be no difficulty with "proper,"
the other word in the phrase. It is very frequently used, as here, in the etymological
sense of "one's own" (Latin, proprius = 'one's own'). Two examples of this use will suffice:
"My proper life," Hamlet, V, ii, 66 ; and "Our
own proper son," Othello, I, ii, 97.
Tongue and brain not. Cymbeline, V, iv, 146-7.
We are such stuff
As dreams are made on. Tempest, IV, i, 156-7.
This interpretation makes it clear that Lady
Macbeth does not at any time see the ghost of
Banquo, and that Macbeth's vision is but the
fear that arises from his guilty conscience.
Lady Macbeth has apparently had no part in
the murder, for it is not on her conscience, but
only on her lord's. With the murder of Duncan her superior moral nature had all but collapsed, and Macbeth had to commit all the
other crimes himself. The play is therefore primarily the story of Macbeth and his crimes,
for not only the visions of daggers before the deeds, but the visions of ghosts afterward, are
all his "proper stuff," or the projection of his mind alone.
1. C. T. Onions (A Shakespeare Glossary, Oxford, 1911) recognizes the required meaning of stuff,
"matter, in a fig. sense," though he does not cite the passage here discussed. He also reads proper in a
number of passages with the meaning 'one's own,' but cites the passage here discussed as illustrating
the meaning "excellent, capital, fine (ironically)."
How to cite this article:
Crawford, A. W. O Proper Stuff! Macbeth, III, iv. Modern Language Notes. Vol.30. 1 May. 1915. Shakespeare Online. 10 Aug. 2010. < http://www.shakespeare-online.com/plays/macbeth/properstuff.html >.
Daily Life in Shakespeare's London
Life in Stratford (structures and guilds)
Life in Stratford (trades, laws, furniture, hygiene)
Stratford School Days: What Did Shakespeare Read?
Games in Shakespeare's England [A-L]
Games in Shakespeare's England [M-Z]
An Elizabethan Christmas
Clothing in Elizabethan England
Queen Elizabeth: Shakespeare's Patron
King James I of England: Shakespeare's Patron
The Earl of Southampton: Shakespeare's Patron
Going to a Play in Elizabethan London
Ben Jonson and the Decline of the Drama
Publishing in Elizabethan England
Religion in Shakespeare's England
Alchemy and Astrology in Shakespeare's Day
Entertainment in Elizabethan England
London's First Public Playhouse
Shakespeare Hits the Big Time
More to Explore
Macbeth: The Complete Play with Annotations and Commentary
The Metre of Macbeth: Blank Verse and Rhymed Lines
Macbeth Character Introduction
Metaphors in Macbeth (Biblical)
Macbeth, Duncan and Shakespeare's Changes
King James I and Shakespeare's Sources for Macbeth
Contemporary References to King James I in Macbeth
The Royal Patent that Changed Shakespeare's Life
Soliloquy Analysis: If it were done when 'tis done (1.7.1-29)
Soliloquy Analysis: Is this a dagger (2.1.33-61)
Soliloquy Analysis: To be thus is nothing (3.1.47-71)
Soliloquy Analysis: She should have died hereafter (5.5.17-28)
Explanatory Notes for Lady Macbeth's Soliloquy (1.5)
The Psychoanalysis of Lady Macbeth (Sleepwalking Scene)
Is Lady Macbeth's Swoon Real?
Explanatory Notes for the Witches' Chants (4.1)
Macbeth Plot Summary (Acts 1 and 2)
Macbeth Plot Summary (Acts 3, 4 and 5)
How to Stage a Production of Macbeth (Scene Suggestions)
A Comparison of Macbeth and Hamlet
The Effect of Lady Macbeth's Death on Macbeth
The Curse of Macbeth
Shakespeare's Sources for Macbeth
Macbeth Q & A
Essay Topics on Macbeth
Aesthetic Examination Questions on Macbeth
What is Tragic Irony?
Stages of Plot Development in Macbeth
Time Analysis of the Action in Macbeth
Macbeth Study Quiz (with detailed answers)
Quotations from Macbeth (Full)
Top 10 Quotations from Macbeth
Shakespeare's Workmanship: Crafting a Sympathetic Macbeth
Origin of the Weird Sisters
Temptation, Sin, Retribution: Lecture Notes on Macbeth
Untie the winds: Exploring the Witches' Control Over Nature in Macbeth
Characteristics of Elizabethan Tragedy
Why Shakespeare is so Important
Shakespeare's Influence on Other Writers