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|ACT I SCENE II ||A room of state in the castle.|| |
Enter KING CLAUDIUS, QUEEN GERTRUDE, HAMLET,
POLONIUS, LAERTES, VOLTIMAND, CORNELIUS, Lords,
|KING CLAUDIUS||Though yet of Hamlet our dear brother's death|
|The memory be green, and that it us befitted|
|To bear our hearts in grief and our whole kingdom|
|To be contracted in one brow of woe,|
|Yet so far hath discretion fought with nature||5|
|That we with wisest sorrow think on him,|
|Together with remembrance of ourselves.|
|Therefore our sometime sister, now our queen,|
|The imperial jointress to this warlike state,|
|Have we, as 'twere with a defeated joy,--||10|
|With an auspicious and a dropping eye,|
|With mirth in funeral and with dirge in marriage,|
|In equal scale weighing delight and dole,--|
|Taken to wife: nor have we herein barr'd|
|Your better wisdoms, which have freely gone||15|
|With this affair along. For all, our thanks.|
|Now follows, that you know, young Fortinbras,|
|Holding a weak supposal of our worth,|
|Or thinking by our late dear brother's death|
|Our state to be disjoint and out of frame,||20|
|Colleagued with the dream of his advantage,|
|He hath not fail'd to pester us with message,|
|Importing the surrender of those lands|
|Lost by his father, with all bonds of law,|
|To our most valiant brother. So much for him.||25|
|Now for ourself and for this time of meeting:|
|Thus much the business is: we have here writ|
|To Norway, uncle of young Fortinbras,--|
|Who, impotent and bed-rid, scarcely hears|
|Of this his nephew's purpose,--to suppress||30|
|His further gait herein; in that the levies,|
|The lists and full proportions, are all made|
|Out of his subject: and we here dispatch|
|You, good Cornelius, and you, Voltimand,|
|For bearers of this greeting to old Norway;||35|
|Giving to you no further personal power|
|To business with the king, more than the scope|
|Of these delated articles allow.|
|Farewell, and let your haste commend your duty.|
|VOLTIMAND and Cornelius||In that and all things will we show our duty.||40|
|KING CLAUDIUS||We doubt it nothing: heartily farewell.||[Exeunt VOLTIMAND and CORNELIUS]
|And now, Laertes, what's the news with you?|
|You told us of some suit; what is't, Laertes?|
|You cannot speak of reason to the Dane,|
|And lose your voice: what wouldst thou beg, Laertes,||45|
|That shall not be my offer, not thy asking?|
|The head is not more native to the heart,|
|The hand more instrumental to the mouth,|
|Than is the throne of Denmark to thy father.|
|What wouldst thou have, Laertes?||50|
|LAERTES||My dread lord,|
|Your leave and favour to return to France;|
|From whence though willingly I came to Denmark,|
|To show my duty in your coronation,|
|Yet now, I must confess, that duty done,||55|
|My thoughts and wishes bend again toward France|
|And bow them to your gracious leave and pardon.|
|KING CLAUDIUS||Have you your father's leave? What says Polonius?|
|LORD POLONIUS||He hath, my lord, wrung from me my slow leave|
|By laboursome petition, and at last||60|
|Upon his will I seal'd my hard consent:|
|I do beseech you, give him leave to go.|
|KING CLAUDIUS||Take thy fair hour, Laertes; time be thine,|
|And thy best graces spend it at thy will!|
|But now, my cousin Hamlet, and my son,--||65|
|HAMLET||[Aside] A little more than kin, and less than kind.
|KING CLAUDIUS||How is it that the clouds still hang on you?|
|HAMLET||Not so, my lord; I am too much i' the sun.|
|QUEEN GERTRUDE||Good Hamlet, cast thy nighted colour off,|
|And let thine eye look like a friend on Denmark.||70|
|Do not for ever with thy vailed lids|
|Seek for thy noble father in the dust:|
|Thou know'st 'tis common; all that lives must die,|
|Passing through nature to eternity.|
|HAMLET||Ay, madam, 'tis common.||75|
|QUEEN GERTRUDE||If it be,|
|Why seems it so particular with thee?|
|HAMLET||Seems, madam! nay it is; I know not 'seems.'|
|'Tis not alone my inky cloak, good mother,|
|Nor customary suits of solemn black,||80|
|Nor windy suspiration of forced breath,|
|No, nor the fruitful river in the eye,|
|Nor the dejected 'haviour of the visage,|
|Together with all forms, modes, shapes of grief,|
|That can denote me truly: these indeed seem,|
|For they are actions that a man might play:|
|But I have that within which passeth show;|
|These but the trappings and the suits of woe.|
|KING CLAUDIUS||'Tis sweet and commendable in your nature, Hamlet,|
|To give these mourning duties to your father:|
|But, you must know, your father lost a father;|
|That father lost, lost his, and the survivor bound||90|
|In filial obligation for some term|
|To do obsequious sorrow: but to persever|
|In obstinate condolement is a course|
|Of impious stubbornness; 'tis unmanly grief;|
|It shows a will most incorrect to heaven,|
|A heart unfortified, a mind impatient,|
|An understanding simple and unschool'd:|
|For what we know must be and is as common|
|As any the most vulgar thing to sense,|
|Why should we in our peevish opposition||100|
|Take it to heart? Fie! 'tis a fault to heaven,|
|A fault against the dead, a fault to nature,|
|To reason most absurd: whose common theme|
|Is death of fathers, and who still hath cried,|
|From the first corse till he that died to-day,|
|'This must be so.' We pray you, throw to earth|
|This unprevailing woe, and think of us|
|As of a father: for let the world take note,|
|You are the most immediate to our throne;|
|And with no less nobility of love||110|
|Than that which dearest father bears his son,|
|Do I impart toward you. For your intent|
|In going back to school in Wittenberg,|
|It is most retrograde to our desire:|
|And we beseech you, bend you to remain|
|Here, in the cheer and comfort of our eye,|
|Our chiefest courtier, cousin, and our son.|
|QUEEN GERTRUDE||Let not thy mother lose her prayers, Hamlet:|
|I pray thee, stay with us; go not to Wittenberg.|
|HAMLET||I shall in all my best obey you, madam.||120|
|KING CLAUDIUS||Why, 'tis a loving and a fair reply:|
|Be as ourself in Denmark. Madam, come;|
This gentle and unforced accord of Hamlet
|Sits smiling to my heart: in grace whereof,|
|No jocund health that Denmark drinks to-day,|
|But the great cannon to the clouds shall tell,|
|And the king's rouse the heavens all bruit again,|
|Re-speaking earthly thunder. Come away.|
|[Exeunt all but HAMLET]|
|HAMLET||O, that this too too solid flesh would melt|
|Thaw and resolve itself into a dew!||130|
|Or that the Everlasting had not fix'd|
|His canon 'gainst self-slaughter! O God! God!|
|How weary, stale, flat and unprofitable,|
|Seem to me all the uses of this world!|
|Fie on't! ah fie! 'tis an unweeded garden,|
|That grows to seed; things rank and gross in nature|
|Possess it merely. That it should come to this!|
|But two months dead: nay, not so much, not two:|
|So excellent a king; that was, to this,|
|Hyperion to a satyr; so loving to my mother||140|
|That he might not beteem the winds of heaven|
|Visit her face too roughly. Heaven and earth!|
|Must I remember? why, she would hang on him,|
|As if increase of appetite had grown|
|By what it fed on: and yet, within a month--|
|Let me not think on't--Frailty, thy name is woman!--|
|A little month, or ere those shoes were old|
|With which she follow'd my poor father's body,|
|Like Niobe, all tears:--why she, even she--|
|O, God! a beast, that wants discourse of reason,||150|
|Would have mourn'd longer--married with my uncle,|
|My father's brother, but no more like my father|
|Than I to Hercules: within a month:|
|Ere yet the salt of most unrighteous tears|
|Had left the flushing in her galled eyes,|
|She married. O, most wicked speed, to post|
|With such dexterity to incestuous sheets!|
|It is not nor it cannot come to good:|
|But break, my heart; for I must hold my tongue.|
|[Enter HORATIO, MARCELLUS, and BERNARDO]|
|HORATIO||Hail to your lordship!|
|HAMLET||I am glad to see you well:|
|Horatio,--or I do forget myself.|
|HORATIO||The same, my lord, and your poor servant ever.||165|
|HAMLET||Sir, my good friend; I'll change that name with you:|
|And what make you from Wittenberg, Horatio? Marcellus?|
|MARCELLUS||My good lord--|
|HAMLET||I am very glad to see you. Good even, sir.|
|But what, in faith, make you from Wittenberg?|
|HORATIO||A truant disposition, good my lord.|
|HAMLET||I would not hear your enemy say so,||170|
|Nor shall you do mine ear that violence,|
|To make it truster of your own report|
|Against yourself: I know you are no truant.|
|But what is your affair in Elsinore?|
|We'll teach you to drink deep ere you depart.|
|HORATIO||My lord, I came to see your father's funeral.|
|HAMLET||I pray thee, do not mock me, fellow-student;|
|I think it was to see my mother's wedding.|
|HORATIO||Indeed, my lord, it follow'd hard upon.|
|HAMLET||Thrift, thrift, Horatio! the funeral baked meats|
|Did coldly furnish forth the marriage tables.||181|
|Would I had met my dearest foe in heaven|
|Or ever I had seen that day, Horatio!|
|My father!--methinks I see my father.|
|HORATIO||Where, my lord?|
|HAMLET||In my mind's eye, Horatio.|
|HORATIO||I saw him once; he was a goodly king.|
|HAMLET||He was a man, take him for all in all,|
|I shall not look upon his like again.|
|HORATIO||My lord, I think I saw him yesternight.|
|HORATIO||My lord, the king your father.|
|HAMLET||The king my father!|
|HORATIO||Season your admiration for awhile|
|With an attent ear, till I may deliver,|
|Upon the witness of these gentlemen,|
|This marvel to you.|
|HAMLET||For God's love, let me hear.|
|HORATIO||Two nights together had these gentlemen,|
|Marcellus and Bernardo, on their watch,|
|In the dead vast and middle of the night,|
|Been thus encounter'd. A figure like your father,|
|Armed at point exactly, cap-a-pe,||200|
|Appears before them, and with solemn march|
|Goes slow and stately by them: thrice he walk'd|
|By their oppress'd and fear-surprised eyes,|
|Within his truncheon's length; whilst they, distilled|
|Almost to jelly with the act of fear,|
|Stand dumb and speak not to him. This to me|
|In dreadful secrecy impart they did;|
|And I with them the third night kept the watch;|
|Where, as they had deliver'd, both in time,|
|Form of the thing, each word made true and good,||210|
|The apparition comes: I knew your father;|
|These hands are not more like.|
|HAMLET||But where was this?|
|MARCELLUS||My lord, upon the platform where we watch'd.|
|HAMLET||Did you not speak to it?|
|HORATIO||My lord, I did;|
|But answer made it none: yet once methought|
|It lifted up its head and did address|
|Itself to motion, like as it would speak;|
|But even then the morning cock crew loud,|
|And at the sound it shrunk in haste away,|
|And vanish'd from our sight.|
|HAMLET||'Tis very strange.||220|
|HORATIO||As I do live, my honour'd lord, 'tis true;|
|And we did think it writ down in our duty|
|To let you know of it.|
|HAMLET||Indeed, indeed, sirs, but this troubles me.|
|Hold you the watch to-night?|
|BERNARDO||We do, my lord.|
|HAMLET||Arm'd, say you?|
|BERNARDO||Arm'd, my lord.|
|HAMLET||From top to toe?|
|BERNARDO||My lord, from head to foot.|
|HAMLET||Then saw you not his face?|
|HORATIO||O, yes, my lord; he wore his beaver up.|
|HAMLET||What, look'd he frowningly?|
|HORATIO||A countenance more in sorrow than in anger.||230|
|HAMLET||Pale or red?|
|HORATIO||Nay, very pale.|
|HAMLET||And fix'd his eyes upon you?|
|HAMLET||I would I had been there.|
|HORATIO||It would have much amazed you.|
|HAMLET||Very like, very like. Stay'd it long?|
|HORATIO||While one with moderate haste might tell a hundred.|
|HORATIO||Not when I saw't.|
|HAMLET||His beard was grizzled--no?|
|HORATIO||It was, as I have seen it in his life,|
|A sable silver'd.|
|HAMLET||I will watch to-night;||240|
|Perchance 'twill walk again.|
|HORATIO||I warrant it will.|
|HAMLET||If it assume my noble father's person,|
|I'll speak to it, though hell itself should gape|
|And bid me hold my peace. I pray you all,|
|If you have hitherto conceal'd this sight,|
|Let it be tenable in your silence still;|
|And whatsoever else shall hap to-night,|
|Give it an understanding, but no tongue:|
|I will requite your loves. So, fare you well:|
|Upon the platform, 'twixt eleven and twelve,||250|
|I'll visit you.|
|All||Our duty to your honour.|
|HAMLET||Your loves, as mine to you: farewell.||[Exeunt all but HAMLET]
|My father's spirit in arms! all is not well;|
|I doubt some foul play: would the night were come!|
|Till then sit still, my soul: foul deeds will rise,|
|Though all the earth o'erwhelm them, to men's eyes.|
Next: Hamlet, Act 1, Scene 3
Explanatory Notes for Act 1, Scene 2
From Hamlet, prince of Denmark. Ed. K. Deighton. London: Macmillan.
1. Hamlet, our dear brother's, a many-worded term, as though hyphened together.
2. green, fresh in our minds.
3. To bear ... grief, to show by the way in which we carried
our hearts that they were borne down by a load of sorrow. The
figure is from the carriage of the body when bearing a burden.
3, 4. and our whole ... woe, and that it befitted our subjects
universally to wear the look of woe which the brow wears when
contracted with physical pain; for brow of woe, = mourning
brow, the Cl. Pr. Edd. compare Lear, i. 4. 306, "brow of youth" = youthful brow; M. V. ii. 8. 42, "mind of love" =
loving mind; i. H. IV. iv. 3. 83, "brow of justice."
5. discretion, politic consideration: nature, natural inclination.
6, 7, That we ... ourselves, that we, while thinking of him, do
so in such a way as wisdom dictates, and at the same time with a
recollection of what is for our own well-being.
8. our sometime sister, she who was formerly our sister; see
note on i. 1. 49.
9. The imperial ... state, the king appears to speak as if the kingdom of Denmark became a jointure of the queen on the death of her former husband: but perhaps he merely means that her
rights of sovereignty were equal with his own.
9. jointress, the
possessor of a jointure, short for 'jointuress.'
10. a defeated joy, a joy robbed of its completeness; from F. defaire, to undo; cp. Sonnet. lxi. 11, "Mine own true love that doth my rest defeat."
11. With an auspicious ... eye, with one eye bright with joy,
while from the other tears were falling. Steevens compares
W. T. v. 2. 80, "She had one eye declined for the loss of her
husband, another elevated that the oracle was fulfilled"; cp.
also for dropping, T. A. iii. 1. 19, "O earth, I will befriend thee
with more rain ... the summer's drought I'll drop upon thee still";
auspicious, literally that which has to do with the watching of
birds for the purpose of augury, then used especially of favourable omens.
12. With mirth ... marriage, if the king is to be taken as
speaking literally, this must mean qualifying the sorrow felt at
his brother's funeral with an admixture of joy at the prospect of
marrying his widow, and equally qualifying the mirth at that
wedding by sad rememberance of his brother's death; dirge, a
funeral lament; from Lat. dirige, direct thou, the first word in
the Psalm (v. 8) used by Catholics at the burial of the dead,
"Dirige, Dominus meus, in conspectu tuo vitam mean," "Guide,
O Lord, my life in Thy sight." Moberly remarks, "The studied
antitheses repeated over and over in this speech give it a very
artificial appearance. The king's politic and parliamentary
reasons for marrying the queen remind us of the similar motives
which an eminent writer supposes to have influenced Henry
VIII in his prompt re-marriages."
13. In equal ... dole, — equally balancing joy and grief, not giving
to either advantage over the other; for dole, sorrow, lamentation, cp. A. Y. L. i. 2. 139, "making such pitiful dole over them
that all the beholders take his part with weeping."
14. to wife, for wife, as wife; see Abb. § 189.
14-6. nor have we ... along, nor have I in coming to a decision
in the matter acted without consulting you who, in a matter personal to myself, were likely to show more dispassionate judgement, for I may say that from first to last you have given your
fullest adherence to my action.
16. For all, our thanks, for everything you have done you
have my gratitude.
17. Now follows ... Fortinbras, next I must mention that, etc.
Walker would read 'Now follows that you know': i.e. that
which you already know, an alteration already suggested by
Theobald with a comma only after know.
18. Holding ... worth, having but a contemptuous idea of my
19. by, in consequence of.
20. state, kingdom: disjoint, cp. below, i. 5. 188, "The time
is out of joint"; Macb. iii. 2. 16, "But let the frame of things
disjoint"; and for examples of the omission of -ed in participles
of verbs ending in te, t, and d, see Abb. § 342: out of frame, dislocated, shaken out of its proper form; cp. L. L. L. iii. 1. 193,
"like a German clock, Still a-repairing, ever out of frame."
21. Colleagued ... advantage, having for his only confederate
this advantage which he fondly dreams he will derive from the
unsettled state of our kingdom.
22,3. He hath ... lands, has persistently pestered me with
messages the purport of which was that I should surrender, etc.;
the distance of the nominative Fortinbras (1. 17) accounts for the
pronoun he; for message, as a plural, see Abb. § 471. Possibly
importing here = importuning as Abb. (Introd. p, xvi.) takes it,
and as important and importance are used by Shakespeare.
24. with ... law, in full accordance with the legal agreement
entered into by the two parties.
25. So much for him, of him and his acts I need say no more.
26. this time of meeting, this occasion for which we have
called you together.
27. here, sc. in the papers he holds in his hand; writ, for the
curtailed form of the participle, see Abb. § 343.
28. Norway, see note on i. 1. 48.
29. bed-rid, from "A.S. bedrida, beddrida, ... A.S. bed, a bed,
and ridda, a knight, a rider; thus the sense is a bed-rider, a
sarcastic term for a disabled man" ... (Skeat, Ety. Dict.): scarcely
hears, has hardly any knowledge of.
30, 1. to suppress ... herein, calling upon him to put a stop to
his nephew's further proceeding in this matter; gait, "a particular use of the M. E. gate, a way ... It is clear that the word was thus used, because popularly connected with the verb to go;
at the same time, the word is not really derived from that verb,
but from the verb to get"... (Skeat, Ety. Dict.): levies, here, as
in ii. 2. 62, of the act of levying troops; in Cymb. iii. 7. 13, of
the troops raised.
32. lists, literally catalogues, hence numbers: proportions,
quotas, contingents, as in H. V. i. 2. 204, "Therefore let our
proportions for these wars Be soon collected."
33. Out of his subject, from among his subjects; for subject,
used collectively, cp. i. 1. 72.
35. For bearers, as bearers.
36-8. Giving ... allow, allowing you no further authority to treat with the king than the limits of these conditions, herein expressly stated, permit; for scope, cp. Lear, i. 4. 314, "But let
his disposition have that scope That dotage gives it. "For the
confusion of proximity, owing to the words intervening between
the nominative and the verb, see Abb. § 412; and for the tenour
of the words, cp. K. J. i. 1. 22, "Then take my king's defiance
from my mouth, The furthest limit of my embassy."
39. let your ... duty, let the haste you make in discharging
your mission call for our approval of your duteous behaviour.
41. nothing, in no way; like 'something,' frequently used by
Shakespeare in an adverbial sense.
42. what's ... you? what have you to tell us about yourself?
43. You told ... suit, you lately spoke to us about some request
you had to prefer.
44. speak of reason, mention any reasonable request.
40. lose your voice, waste your words, speak in vain.
45, 6. what wouldst ... asking? you cannot possibly make any
request of us which we would not grant of our own free will, if
we only knew what its nature was.
47-9 The head ... father, the head and heart, the hand and
mouth, do not work together in more complete sympathy than
do your father and myself. Delius points out that native expresses a connection that is congenital; instrumental, one that is mechanical; for native, = allied by nature, cp. A. W. i. 1. 238,
"To join like likes, and kiss like native things." Also for a
similar line of thought, see the fable of the belly and the bodily
members, Cor. i. 1. 99, etc.
51. Your leave and favour, your gracious permission.
52. From whence, strictly speaking, redundant; the suffix -ce,
= -es, originally a genitive case-ending, meaning 'from.' The
word is further noticeable in that when is used of time, not
place, though the word has in itself no reference to either time
or place, it being, according to Skeat (who compares Lat. quum,
when, from quis, who), originally a case of the interrogative
53. To show ... coronation, to show myself a loyal subject by
attending your coronation.
54. done, being performed.
57. And bow ... pardon, and submit themselves to your gracious
permission; asking, as it were, to be excused for preferring
France to the king's court; pardon, as in iv. 7. 46, and A. C. iii,
6. 60, "whereon I begg'd His pardon for return," meaning little
more than leave, permission.
59. wrung ... leave, extorted from me a permission reluctantly
60. By laboursome petition, by strenuous and persistent begging; laboursome, used again in Cymb. iii 4. 167, "Your laboursome and dainty trims," but in a slightly different sense, trims
over which much labour had been spent.
61. Upon his will ... consent, with the utmost reluctance I
assented to the determination he had so strongly formed; there
is an allusion to putting a seal to a will in order to give it validity, and a play upon the two meanings of Will.
63. Take ... hour, choose the time that may best suit you for
your departure: time be thine, consider yourself at liberty to
remain away as long as you may think fit.
64. And thy ... will! and may that time be spent by you to the
best purpose and in the way most agreeable to you!
65. cousin, used in Shakespeare's time for almost any relationship not in the first degree: son, stepson, the king having married his mother.
65. A little ... kind, the explanation of this line depends in
the first place upon whether the words refer to himself or to the
king, and secondly upon whether kind means 'kindly,' 'well-disposed,' or 'of the same nature.' Malone, taking the former view, explains, "I am a little more than thy kinsman (for I am
thy stepson), and am somewhat less than kind to thee (for I hate thee, as being the person who has incestuously married my mother)." Grant White, following Steevens, and taking the
latter view, explains, "In marrying my mother, you have made yourself something more than my kinsman, and, at the
same time, have shown yourself unworthy of our race, our kind." To me Grant White's explanation seems undoubtedly
the right one. This jingle between 'kin' and 'kind' was a
67. that the clouds ... you, that you are still in such a gloomy
68. too much i' the sun, probably best explained by reference
to the old proverb, quoted by Johnson, "Out of heaven's blessing into the warm sun," i.e. passing from a good state into one less favourable. The proverb is quoted in Lear, ii. 2. 168, and Dyce and Caldecott give examples of its use from Heywood to Swift. Some commentators have supposed a pun on 'sun' and 'son,' with an allusion to the king's words in 1. 64, and with the meaning that Hamlet had too much of the son and successor
about him without possession of his rights.
69. nighted colour, dark frame of mind; for the general rule
that participles formed from an adjective mean 'made of (the
adjective),' and derived from a noun, mean 'endowed with, or
like (the noun),' see Abb. § 294.
70. like a friend, in a friendly way, as the eye of a friend
would look: Denmark, i.e. the king.
72. Do not ... dust, do not for all time go about with your
eyes cast upon the ground as if you were looking for your father
laid in the earth: for vailed, cp. M. V. i. 1. 28, "Vailing her high-top lower than her ribs."
74. nature, this temporary existence in the natural world.
75. 'tis common, the occurrence of death is something that all
equally share; all that lives, everything that has life.
77. Why seems ... thee? why do you behave as though it
were something special to you?
80. Nor customary ... black, nor the usual sombre dress of
mourners; solemn, literally yearly, occurring annually like a
81. Nor windy ... breath, nor the forced sighs of insincere grief;
windy, used in the contemptuous sense of that which has nothing
real in it; so, of words, R. III. iv. 4. 127, "Windy attorneys to
their client woes."
82. the fruitful river... eye, the tears always ready to fall so
copiously; cp, A. C. ii. 5. 24, "Ram thou thy fruitful tidings in mine ears."
83. 'haviour, for examples of dropped prefixes, see Abb, § 460.
84. modes, methods of displaying grief externally [some texts have moods]: shapes, external semblances.
87. passeth show, goes beyond, is incapable of being represented by, any outward demonstration.
88. trappings, ornamental appendages: cp. T. N. v. 1, 10,
"Duke. Belong you to the Lady Olivia, friends? Clown. Ay,
sir; we are some of her trappings", originally, and in a literal
sense always, applied to the ornaments of a horse, such as plates
of metal, handsome cloths, etc. Malone compares R. II. iv. 1.
87. commendable, probably with the accent on the first
syllable, as in Cor. iv. 7. 51, though Abbott (§ 490), in order to
avoid the Alexandrine, scans the line "'Tis sweet and | commend | able in | your nat | ure, Hamlet."
88. To give, we should now say 'to pay.'
89. you must know, you must bear in mind.
90. That father ... bound, that father who was lost by your
father, lost his father; and the survivor in each case was bound,
etc. For the ellipsis in bound, the Cl. Pr. Edd. compare iii.
91. In filial obligation, by the duty he owed as a son.
92. obsequious sorrow, sorrow usual to show at the funeral of
some one dear; cp, T. A. v. 3. 152, "To shed obsequious tears
upon this trunk"; and for the substantive in the same sense,
R. J. v. 3. 16, "The obsequies that I for thee will keep Nightly
shall be to strew thy grave and weep"; obsequies. Lat.
obsequiae, funeral rites, literally followings after (a dead body);
persever, with the accent on the second syllable, as always in
93. condolement, sorrow for the dead; nowadays we use the verb 'condole' only in the sense of expressing sympathy in
sorrow, but in Elizabethan English it is often used as = mourn.
94. impious, in not showing resignation to the divine will.
95. incorrect to heaven, which refuses to bow to the correction, chastisement of heaven, as shown in the bereavement.
96. unfortified, not fortified by the consolations of religion: impatient, rebellious against the sufferings which it should bear
with due submission.
97. simple, foolish, ignorant; unschool'd, that has not learnt
the lessons which a wise man would lay to heart.
98. what, that which; must be, must happen.
99. As any ... sense, as anything the most palpable to sense;
for instances of the transposition of adjectival phrases, see Abb.
§ 419 a. Francke compares Cymb. i. 4. 65, "any the rarest of
our ladies in France"; H. VIII. ii. 4. 48, "was reckon'd one The wisest prince that there had reigned."
100. peevish, childishly querulous; fretful.
101. Take it to heart, cherish it as a wrong done to us: to
heaven, towards, against, heaven.
102. nature, that organization to which we belong, are a part
103. To reason most absurd, showing an utter deafness to the
voice of reason; absurd, from Lat. ab, from, and surdus, deaf; for 'who,' personifying an irrational antecedent, see Abb. § 264.
104. still, ever, constantly.
105. till he, up to the time of him; till, here a preposition; for he, = him, see Abb. § 206.
106. throw to earth, completely cast from you.
107. unprevailing, unavailing; Malone quotes Dryden, Essay on Dramatic Literature, "He may often prevail himself of the
same advantages in English." Cp. also R. J. iii. 3. 60, "It helps not, it prevails not": H. V. iii. 2. 16, "If wishes should prevail with me. "
108, 9. for let ... throne, for I call all men to witness my declaration that I regard you as next in succession to the throne. Succession to the throne of Denmark seems to have been elective,
though, as appears from the last scene of the play, the recommendation of the previous occupant went for something in the
election, and here the king is in effect pronouncing such recommendation beforehand.
110. with no ... love, with a love as full of generous feeling.
111. dearest, fondly loving and beloved.
112. Do I impart toward you, Delius is probably right in thinking
that Shakespeare having forgotten, owing to the intermediate clause, that he had written with no less, intended no less nobility of love to be the object of impart; For your intent, as regards,
113. to school, not necessarily in the sense in which we should
now use the phrase, Wittenberg being a university. Of course,
the mention of Wittenberg is an anachronism, the university
not having been founded until A.D. 1502.
114. retrograde, opposed to: literally going back from; an
astrological term. Tschischwitz says that when planets were retrograde, going away from the earth's orbit, they were, under certain circumstances, supposed to be hostile to human plans.
115. bend you, incline your mind.
116. in the cheer ... eye, cheered and comforted by our
gracious looks; cheer, properly the face, look, as in M. S. D.
iii. 2. 96, "pale of cheer," from O. F. chere, chiere, the face,
117. chiefest, highest in rank and importance: cousin, in the
118. lose, throw them away.
120. I shall best, I promise that I will to the best of my
ability; shall, see Abb. 315.
121. Why, 'tis ... reply, well, you could not have answered us
in more affectionate and gracious terms.
122. as ourself, i.e. enjoying the same privileges and honours.
123. accord. promise in harmony with our wishes.
124. Sits ... heart, nestles close to my heart, and smiles upon
it; i.e. is very dear to my heart, and cheers it by its presence.
There is the twofold idea of an object being hugged to the heart,
and of that object smiling upon the heart that thus gives it welcome: in grace whereof, and in order to mark my gratitude by doing honour to your concession; grace, honour, as in M. N. D. iv. 1. 139, "Came here in grace, of our solemnity," is probably
here used with a reference also to the saying of grace after meals
for blessings bestowed.
125. jocund health, joyous toasts to the health of some person: Denmark, I, the king of Denmark.
126. But the great ... tell, shall be drunk without the cannon
announcing it to, etc.
127. rouse, "a drinking-bout ...— Swed. rus, a drunken fit ...
That we got the word from Denmark is shown by a curious
quotation in Todd's Johnson: 'Thou noblest drunkard Bacchus, teach me how to take the Danish rowza'; Brand's
Pop. Antiq. ii. 228" (Skeat, Ety. Dict): bruit again, re-echo
with loud report; bruit, F. bruit, a great noise, bruire (verb).
128. Re-speaking earthly thunder, the skies echoing the report
of the cannon as with heavenly thunder.
129. this ... flesh, Moberly remarks, "The base affinities of our
nature are always present to Hamlet's mind. Here he thinks of
the body as hiding from us the freshness, life, and nobleness of
God's creation" ...
130. resolve, dissolve; but usually in this sense with the idea
of dissolving back into the original constituents. Cp. Tim. iv.
3. 442. "The sea's a thief, whose liquid surge resolves The moon
into salt tears."
132. His canon 'gainst self-slaughter, his ordinance forbidding
suicide; an ordinance not laid down in Scripture except in the
general one against murder.
133. stale, vapid; flat, tasteless, as liquor becomes after
standing uncovered for some time.
134. uses, manners, ways, doings: cp. Oth. iv. 3. 105, "heaven
me such uses send, Not to pick bad from bad, but by bad
135, 6. 'tis an ... seed, the world seems to me as a garden in
which no care is taken to hoe up the weeds, and in which the plants are left to run to seed (and so become worthless) instead of having their exuberant growth checked by pruning. Cp. R. II. iii. 4. 34-66, where a garden is likened to a commonwealth.
136. things ... nature, things which for want of proper attention have become rank and gross in nature.
137. merely, completely; "Merely (from the Latin merus and
mere) means purely, only. It separates that which it designates
or qualifies from everything else. But in so doing the chief or
most emphatic reference may be made either to that which is
included, or to that which is excluded. In modern English it is
always to the latter; by 'merely upon myself' [J. C. i. 2. 39] we
should now mean upon nothing else except myself; the nothing else is that which makes the merely prominent.
In Shakespeare's day the other reference was the more common, that namely to
what was included; and 'merely upon myself' meant upon myself altogether, or without regard to anything else. Myself
was that which the merely made prominent. So when Hamlet
speaking of the world, says, 'Things rank and gross in nature
possess it merely,' he by the merely brings the possession before
the mind and characterizes it as complete and absolute; but by
the same term now the prominence would be given to something else from which the possession might be conceived to be separable; 'possess it merely would mean have nothing beyond simply the
possession of it (have, it might be, no right to it, or no enjoyment
of it). It is not necessaiy that that which is included, though
thus emphasized, should therefore be more definitely conceived
than that with which it is contrasted" ... (Craik, Eng. of Shakespeare, 45). That it ... this! to think that matters should have come to such a scandalous pitch! what a horrible idea!
138. But, only.
139. to this, when compared to the present king.
141. Hyperion to a satyr, what the god of day is to a creature
half goat, half man. The penultimate in Hyperion is long in
Greek, but English poets from Spenser to modern times have
disregarded this fact.
141. That he ... beteem, that he would not allow.
142. Visit, for the omission of to before the infinitive, see Abb.
143. Must I remember? can I not put such thoughts out of my
head? must they ever be present there? hang on him, cling to
him in fond embrace.
144, 5. As If ... on, as if her loving desire had been made more
eager by its mere satisfaction; been strengthened by the food of
love it had enjoyed.
146. Let me ... on 't, oh, that I could forget it! Frailty...
woman, if we wished to give frailty a descriptive name, no better
one could be chosen than 'woman.'
147. A little month, a short month; scarcely a month: or ere,
a reduplication, or, in this phrase, = before, from A.S. aer, ere:
shoes. Ingleby would read 'shows. '
145. follow d, sc. to the grave.
149. Niobe, daughter of Tantalus, and wife of Amphion. Proud
of the number of her children, she boasted her superiority over
Leto, mother of Apollo and Artemis, who, indignant at the
insult, slew all her children; she herself, according to one tradition, being changed by Zeus at her own request into a stone, which during the summer always shed tears: all tears, a very
impersonation of grief.
150. that wants ... reason, that lacks the power of reasoning,
the reasoning faculty; cp. T. C. ii. 2. 116, "So madly hot that
no discourse of reason ... Can qualify the same?"; and below,
iv. 4. 36.
152. but no more ... father, but, though so closely akin in
blood, no more akin in disposition to, etc.
154. Ere yet ... tears, even before the salt tears which, with
such intention in her mind, were a mere profanation of sorrow, etc.
155. Had left ... eyes, had ceased to flush her eyes with "eye-offending brine" (T. N. i. 1. 30); flushing is here the verbal, and
the verb is still used transitively in such expressions as 'to flush the deck," 'to flush the sewers,' meaning to cleanse by dashing water upon or through; for galled, cp. below, iii. 2. 235; the
verb means to rub a sore place.
156. to post, to hurry at full speed; from post, a runner,
157. With such dexterity, so quickly and cleverly. There seems
to be here the idea of that combined nimbleness and ingenuity which is essential to success in tricks performed by sleight of hand; not only did she swiftly transfer her affections from one brother to the other, but she showed in doing so a cunning regard to her own interests: incestuous, originally meaning
nothing more than unchaste, but used specially of alliances
within the forbidden degrees of relationship.
158. nor it cannot, the emphatic double negative, frequent
160. Hail, literally health, A.S. hael, health; a common salutation.
161. or do ... myself? or am I making some mistake in fancying you to be Horatio?
162. poor, humble.
163. I'll change ... you, probably exchange that name with
you, calling you friend and expecting you to call me so in return, rather than, as Johnson explains, "I'll be your servant, and you shall be my friend."
164. what ... Wittenberg? what are you doing here away from
Wittenberg (where you ought to be)?
167. Good even, sir, Grant White, the Camb. Ed., and Hudson, take this as addressed to Bernardo.
168. But what ... Wittenberg, but tell me truly what has
brought you all the way from Wittenberg.
169. A truant disposition, an idle, roving nature; F. truand,
rascally, roguish: good my lord, for the transposition of the
pronominal adjective, see Abb. § 13.
170. hear ... so, stand by and hear your enemy say so without
defending you against his charge. 171. that, such; see Abb. § 277.
172,3. To make ... yourself, as to make it believe your own
report when it is one defaming yourself.
175. We'll teach ... depart, if we cannot do anything else, we
will at all events teach, etc. See note on i. 4. 19.
179. hard upon, closely after.
180. Thrift, thrift, pretending to excuse the unseemly haste of
the marriage, Hamlet says that was but economy, nothing else:
the funeral baked meats, the dishes cooked for the funeral ceremony; the custom of entertaining the relations and friends of deceased persons after the funeral. Douce traces the custom to the cena feralis of the Romans, at which milk, honey, wine, etc., were offered to the spirit of the
dead person. Cp. The Old Law, iv. 1. 35-7, "Besides, there will
be charges saved too; the same rosemary that serves for the
funeral will serve for the wedding."
181. Did coldly ... tables, served, when cold, for the wedding
feast; with a play upon coldly.
182. Would I ... heaven, I would rather have met my worst
enemy in heaven (instead of his being in hell where I should
wish him to be); dearest foe, "'dear' is used of whatever touches us nearly either in love or hate, joy or sorrow" ... (Cl. Pr. Ed.).
183. Or ever, before ever; ever emphasizing the wish.
185. in my mind's eye, Steevens compares Lucr. 1426, "Was left unseen, save to the eye of mind."
186. goodly, fine-looking.
187, 8. He was ... again, he was a man whose equal, looking at
him in all his characteristics, I shall never see again; take him,
if one regards him; for all in all, for everything about him
in every respect; an emphatic way of speaking = in his
190. Saw? who? both words emphatic; what do you mean by
saying you saw him? and whom do you mean by him? Many
editors read 'Saw who?', and 'who' for 'whom' is frequently
used by Shakespeare.
192,3. Season ... ear, let your wonder be mixed with, qualified
by, attention for a time; for season, cp. ii. 1. 28, below; admiration, always used by Shakespeare either as 'wonder' simply, or as 'wonder mingled with veneration,' and so more in accordance
with its original sense; attent, attentive; not elsewhere in Shakespeare: deliver, relate.
194. Upon ... gentlemen, resting upon the evidence of these
gentlemen which will hear out what I have to say.
197. on their watch, while keeping their watch.
198. In the dead ... the night, in the silent vacancy of midnight; vast, "applied to the darkness of midnight in which the prospect is not bounded in by distinct objects" (Schmidt); cp.
Temp. i. 2. 327, "that vast of night." Malone sees a pun here upon vast, or waste, as the folios read, and waist, comparing
Marston's Malcontent, ii. 3. 153, "'Tis now about the waist of
midnight"; but it is much more probable that Marston, who in
that play repeatedly burlesques or parodies passages in Hamlet,
should have seized upon this expression in order to pun
200. Armed at point exactly, in armour complete to the
smallest particular; the folios read 'at all points,' as in R. II.
i. 3. 2; in Lear, i. 4. 347, "to let hiin keep at point a hundred
knights," and Macb. iv. 3. 135, "with ten thousand warlike
men Already at a point," the meaning is 'in complete readiness'; cap-a-pe, from head to foot; F. a pied, a being the preposition = to.
202. Goes ... them, passes in front of them in slow and stately
manner; slow and stately, adverbs.
204. Within ... length, less than the length of his truncheon
away from them; truncheon, short staff, a symbol of kingly
(or other) office; what in R. II. i. 3. 118, is called the king's
'warder'; whilst, the genitive case of while, time, used adverbially,
with an excrescent t, as in amongst, amidst.
204, 5. distill'd ... fear, dissolved almost into a jelly by the
action of fear upon them; i.e. with beads of sweat falling from their foreheads, like jelly melting; unless there is a reference to the tremulous nature of jelly, and its being allowed to drip
through a flannel bag when being made; cp. T. A. iii. 1. 17,
"with rain That shall distill from these two ancient urns," i.e. his eyes; act, cp. 0th. iii. 3. 328, "poisons Which ... with a little act upon the blood, Burn like the mines of sulphur."
207. dreadful, terror-stricken; impart they did, "this inversion gives formality and solemnity to the speaker's words" (Cl. Pr. Ed.).
209-11. Where, ... comes, and to that spot (sc. where we were keeping watch) the apparition comes at the very time of night
and in the very shape described by them, every particular of
their narrative being substantiated.
212. These hands ... like, these two hands of mine (holding them up) being not more like each other than was the figure like your father.
214. Did you ... it? you surely did not allow it to pass without
questioning it? Steevens has a long note to show, what seems
apparent enough, that speak not you is the emphatic word.
216. it head, the first quarto gives 'his head'; it, an early
provincial form, = its, occurs in the first folio in fourteen passages;
in some of these it is used either in imitation of the language of
children, or in a mocking, derisive sense, but in others no such
idea is present. Rolfe remarks, "The simple fact is, that
Shakespeare wrote in the early part of that transitional period
when its was beginning to displace his and her as the possessive
of it, and that just at that time the form it and it's were more
common than its, though this last was occasionally used even
before the end of the 16th century."
216, 7. and did ... speak, and prepared to speak, as shown by
the moving of its lips, made as though it would speak; address,
made ready, ultimately from Lat. directus, straight; for motion,
cp. i. H. IV. ii. 3. 63, "And in thy face strange motions (i.e.
contortions) have appeared, Such as we see when men restrain
their breath On some great sudden hest"; like ... speak, i.e. just
as it would do if it were about to speak ('if being implied in the
subjunctive), would now be accounted a vulgarism.
218. even then, at that very instant; on the difference of
emphasis in the use of even, between Elizabethan and modern
English, see Abb. § 38.
219. shrunk, i.e. into thin air.
221. As I do live, as surely as I live.
222. writ ... duty, laid down among the items of our duty, as
though they had a scroll with the different particulars
enumerated; for the curtailed form of the participle, see Abb.
224. Indeed ... me, assuredly this troubles me; literally,
assuredly this does not do anything except trouble me.
226. Arm'd, say you? said with reference to the ghost.
228. beaver, "the lower portion of the face-guard of a helmet,
when worn with a visor; but occasionally serving the purposes
of both. M. E. baviere O.F. baviere, originally a child's
bib, f. bave, saliva" (Murray, Eng. Dict).
230. A countenance ... anger, the expression of his features was
that of sorrow rather than anger.
233. constantly, persistently, without taking them off our
234. amazed, bewildered; a-, A.S. intensive prefix.
238. grizzled, of greyish colour; F. gris, grey: no? seems to
be said by Hamlet on Horatio shaking his head in dissent.
240. A sable silver'd, a black beard with threads of silver in
it; op. Sonn. xii. 4, "And sable curls all silver'd o'er with
white"; and in proof that Shakespeare used sable for black, cp.
below, ii. 2. 428, "he whose sable arms Black as his purpose."
Sable, an animal of the weasel kind, the most highly prized fur
of which is black; so sable in blazonry means black.
242. assume ... person, present itself in the form of my father; assume, take upon it, but without any idea of its doing so without right.
243, 4. though hell ... peace, though hell, by opening at my
feet, should endeavour to deter me from speaking. Staunton
thinks that gape perhaps means yell, howl, roar.
246. Let it ... still, let it be a thing about which you find it
still possible to keep silence; tenable, not elsewhere used by
247. hap, happen.
248. Give it ... tongue, take it well into your minds, let it
impress itself firmly upon your minds, but do not utter a word
249. requite, "The word ought rather to be requit ... But just
as quite occurs as a variant of quit, so requite is put for requit."
251. Our duty to your honour, we assure your honour (used as a title) of our loyal obedience.
252. Your loves, i.e. it is your affection, not your duty, that I
desire, just as it is affection that I feel towards you.
253. in arms! not merely, or so much, that the ghost appears
clad in armour, but that it has risen to avenge some injury: all is not well, some wrong has evidently been perpetrated.
Hitherto Hamlet, though vigorously condemning his mother's
haste in re-marrying, especially as her choice is a so unworthy
one, and pouring contempt upon his uncle, has had no suspicion
of foul play.
254. doubt, suspect.
255, 6. foul deeds ... eyes, foul deeds will reveal themselves to
men's eyes, however thoroughly they may appear to be hidden;
cp. Macb. iii. 4. 123-6,
"Stones have been known to move and
trees to speak;
Augurs and understood relations have
By magot pies and choughs and rooks brought forth
The secret 'st man of blood."
Corson doubts whether to men's eyes should be connected with rise or with o'erwhelm them.
How to cite the explanatory notes:
Shakespeare, William. Hamlet, prince of Denmark. Ed. K. Deighton. London: Macmillan, 1919. Shakespeare Online. 20 Feb. 2010. < http://www.shakespeare-online.com/plays/hamlet_1_2.html >.
How to cite the scene review questions:
Mabillard, Amanda. Hamlet: Scene Questions for Review. Shakespeare Online. 27 Nov. 2013. < http://www.shakespeare-online.com/plays/hamlet_1_2.html >.
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2. How should the courtiers be dressed?
3. How does this compare to the way Hamlet is dressed (in his nighted colour).
4. Claudius discusses four pressing matters with his court: the state of Denmark, the business with Norway, Laertes' request to return to France, and Hamlet's request to return to Wittenberg. Explain the significance of each.
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